Borneo Rainforest Endemic Animal

Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei share the island of Borneo, one of the world’s most biodiverse regions. Inside the dense and often unexplored rain forests live elephants, deer, tigers, primates and several other types of plants, insects and birds. Discover our favourite animals in Borneo and where to see them below.

Proboscis Monkeys

The Proboscis monkeys are one of the endemic primate to the Borneo Rainforest. This reddish–brown primate has a long nose, which can reach up to 18 centimetres (7 inches) in males. Its big nose helps to attract mates and to amplify the sound of warning calls.

This species never straying far from the island’s rivers, coastal mangroves, and swamps. They are a highly arboreal species and will venture onto land only occasionally to search for food. Living on a diet of mainly mangrove shoots and insects, the proboscis monkey, named after its nose, are strictly protected animals.


Orangutan means ‘man of the forest’ in Bahasa Indonesia. Its name referse to the resemblance of this primate to humans. This intelligent animals only live in Borneo and Sumatera. Orangutan are relatively solitary compared to other primate species. Sadly, with deforestation, logging and hunting, orangutan numbers are sharply declining. Researchers has estimates there were about 54,000 orangutan in Borneo island, both in Indonesian and Malaysian parts in 2004 (Wich et all 2008). Several rehabilitation centers are open to the public where you can see them in their natural habitat. 

Sun Bears

The Honey Bear or Malayan Sun Bear is a bear that is found inhabiting lowland tropical rainforests in south-east Asia region. Honey Bear is the smallest species of of the eight living bear species. It’s head-body length is about 1.2 –1,5 m; height at shoulder ca. 70 cm; and it weighs about 25–65 kg.

It is also one of the most unique bear for its exclusively tree-dwelling life. Sun bears do not hibernate. They are predominantly nocturnal and spend much of the day sleeping or sunbathing in trees. Honey bear is a nocturnal and shy species, they are rare to see in the wild.

Sambar Deers

The nocturnal sambar deer, or rusa, are among some of Asia’s biggest deer. Adult males can reach a length of more than 2 metres (6.6 feet) and a weight of over 200 kilograms (441 pounds). Found across much of Southeast Asia, rusa are at home in Borneo’s rain forests and tend to be some of the easiest animals in Borneo to spot.

Mouse Deers

While not technically a deer (classified as a tragulidae), the nocturnal and solitary critter lives mostly in the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatera. Reaching a height of barely 1 foot (30 centimetres) and looking similar to a small cat, the mouse deer holds the title as the world’s smallest hooved animal. These shy animals in Borneo possess a remarkable reproductive ability: Females may conceive just two hours after birth and newly born fauns can stand after 30 minutes!

Borneo Pygmy Elephants

The world’s smallest elephants are among the cutest animals in Borneo. Living in northern and northeast Borneo, these tiny elephants with over-sized ears and long tails are declining because of deforestation and hunting. Estimates suggest only 1,500 to 3,000 remain in the wild, making the friendly and adorable elephants in dire need of protection. Lucky tourists might catch a glimpse of Borneo’s Pygmies at Danum Valley Conservation Area or, believe it or not, swimming in the Kinabatangan River.

Clouded Leopards

Clouded leopards are among some of the more elusive animals in Borneo. Preferring to live in the treetops throughout the rain forests in Asia, the leopard possesses an incredible and agile ability to climb. The nocturnal creatures hunt smaller mammals including deer, pigs and even monkeys. Given their nature, seeing a clouded leopard in the wild is rare.


The elegant and gracious hornbills, known for their unusual ‘double-storied bill’ and looking like cartoon characters, live throughout the tropics in Asia and Africa. But Borneo’s Sarawak holds a special place for twitters wanting to catch a glimpse of the giant birds. Housing eight out of the world’s 54 species, Sarawak deserves the state nickname as ‘The Land of the Hornbills’. The most common is the black-bodied and white-tailed Rhinoceros hornbill with a white and orange beak which features on the state’s emblem.

Sumatran Rhinos

Sadly, the Sumatran Rhino is on the verge of extinction. With the title as the world’s smallest and having a body covered in long hair, Asia’s only two–horned rhino has a reputation for being so elusive that even rangers spending all their lives in the forest rarely see one. It’s unknown how many remain, but estimates suggest less than 100 live in northern Sumatra and the heart of Borneo.

Bornean Slow Loris

The Bornean slow loris, or Nycticebus borneanus by its scientific name, is classified as a primate but looks more like a tiny lemur. Living a nocturnal existence, this animal in Borneo can be quite challenging to spot in its natural habitat. Relatively large populations live in central Borneo, and new species of slow loris are still being discovered today.

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